שמות השרירים , המבנה והתנועות שלהם – תחל, אחז, פעולה – A.I.O

טבלת השרירים A.I.O

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Trapezius

  • Origin:
    • Superior nuchal (base of the skull)
    • Spinous processes C7 – T12
  • Insertion:
    • Spine of Scapula
    • Lateral ⅓ of the clavicle
    • Acromion
  • Action:
    • Upper fibers of trapezius
      • Elevation of scapula
      • Retraction of scapula
    • Middle fibers of trapezius
      • Retraction of scapula
    • Lower fibers of trapezius
      • Depression of scapula
      • Retraction of scapula
    • Lower and upper together
      • Lateral rotation of the scapula

Rhomboids

  • Origin:
    • C7 – T5
  • Insertion: 
    • Medial border of scapula
  • Action: 
    • Retraction of scapula
    • Elevation of scapula

Latissimus Dorsi

  • Origin: 
    • Spinous processes T6 – T12
    • Thoracolumbar fascia
    • 3-4 bottom ribs
    • Iliac crest
  • Insertion:
    • Floor of bicipital groove of humerus
  • Action:
    • Shoulder extension
    • Shoulder adduction
    • Medial rotation of the shoulder

Deltoids

  • Origin:
    • Anterior deltoid: lateral ⅓ of the clavicle
    • Medial deltoid: lateral part of the acromion
    • Posterior deltoid: spine of scapula
  • Insertion:
    • Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
  • Action:
    • Anterior deltoid: 
      • Shoulder flexion
      • Horizontal adduction of shoulder
      • Helps in medial rotation of shoulder
    • Medial deltoid
      • Shoulder abduction (over 15 degrees)
    • Posterior deltoid
      • Shoulder extension
      • Horizontal abduction of shoulder
      • Lateral rotation of shoulder

Levator Scapula

  • Origin: 
    • Spinous processes C1 – C4
  • Insertion:
    • Medial border of scapula
  • Action:
    • Elevation of scapula

Supraspinatus (rotator cuff)

  • Origin:
    • Supraspinous fossa of the scapula
  • Insertion:
    • Greater tuberosity of the humerus
  • Action: 
    • Shoulder abduction (up to 15 degrees)

Infraspinatus (rotator cuff)

  • Origin:
    • Infraspinous fossa
  • Insertion:
    • Greater tuberosity of the humerus (right under supraspinatus)
  • Action:
    • Lateral rotation of shoulder

Teres Minor (rotator cuff)

  • Origin:
    • Lateral border of scapula
  • Insertion:
    • Inferior facet of the greater tuberosity of the humerus
    • Capsule of the glenohumeral joint
  • Action:
    • Lateral rotation of shoulder

Subscapularis (rotator cuff)

  • Origin:
    • Subscapular fossa 
  • Insertion:
    • Lesser tuberosity of the humerus
  • Action:
    • Medial rotation of the shoulder

Serratus anterior

  • Origin:
    • Outer lateral section of ribs 1-8
  • Insertion:
    • Medial border of scapula (through subscapular fossa)
  • Action:
    • Protraction
    • Lateral rotation of scapula
    • Breathing muscles

Teres Major

  • Origin:
    • Posterior inferior angle of scapula (on the bone itself)
  • Insertion:
    • Medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus
  • Action:
    • Shoulder adduction
    • Shoulder extension
    • Medial rotation of shoulder

Biceps brachii

  • Origin;
    • Long head – supraglenoid tuberosity
    • Short head – coracoid process
  • Insertion:
    • Radial tuberosity
  • Action:
    • Elbow flexion
    • Supination

Subclavius

  • Origin:
    • Costal cartilage of 1st rib
  • Insertion
    • Inferior middle ⅓ of clavicle
  • Action:
    • Depression of clavicle
    • Elevation of first rib

Pectoralis Minor

  • Origin:
    • Costal cartilage of ribs 3 – 5
  • Insertion:
    • Coracoid process
  • Action:
    • Depression of scapula
    • Medial rotation of scapula

Pectoralis major

  • Origin:
    • Upper pectoralis – ⅔ medial clavicle 
    • Middle pectoralis – sternum
    • Lower pectoralis – costal cartilage of ribs 1 – 6
  • Insertion
    • Bicipital groove of humerus
  • Action:
    • Upper pectoralis – shoulder flexion
    • Middle pectoralis – horizontal adduction
    • Lower pectoralis – medial rotation of the shoulder, shoulder extension

Coracobrachialis

  • Origin:
    • Coracoid process
  • Insertion:
    • Medial ⅓ of humerus
  • Action:
    • Shoulder flexion
    • Shoulder adduction

Brachialis

  • Origin:
    • Distal half of anterior humerus
  • Insertion:
    • Ulnar tuberosity
  • Action:
    • Forearm flexion

Brachoradialis

  • Origin:
    • Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Just above lateral epicondyle
  • Insertion:
    • Lateral side of distal end of radius
  • Action:
    • Forearm flexion
    • Pronation to midpoint
    • Supination to midpoint

Triceps brachii

  • Origin:
    • Long head – infraglenoid tuberosity of scapula
    • medial/lateral heads – posterior surface of humerus
  • Insertion:
    • Olecranon process of ulna
  • Action:
    • Elbow extension
    • Long head – shoulder extension

Rectus femoris (Quadriceps femoris)

  • Origin:
    • Superior section of AIIS (Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine) over the acetabulum
  • Insertion: 
    • Tibial tuberosity
  • Action:
    • Knee extension
    • Hip flexion (secondary)

Vastus Medialis, intermedius, and lateralis (Quadriceps femoris)

  • Origin:
    • Lateralis: greater trochanter
    • Intertrochanteric line
    • Superior lateral area of femur
  • Insertion:
    • Tibial tuberosity
  • Action:
    • Knee extension

Iliopsoas (made up of Iliacus and psoas)

  • Psoas major:
    • Origin
      • T12-L5
    • Insertion:
      • Lesser trochanter
    • Action:
      • Hip flexion
      • Trunk flexion
  • Iliacus
    • Origin:
      • Iliac crest
      • Iliac fossa
    • Insertion:
      • Lesser trochanter
    • Action:
      • Hip flexion

Pectineus

  • Origin:
    • Superior ramus of pubic
  • Insertion:
    • Inferior area to lesser trochanter
  • Action:
    • Hip flexion
    • Hip adduction
    • Medial rotation

Gastrocnemius

  • Origin:
    • Lateral head – superior area to lateral epicondyle
    • Medial head – superior area to medial epicondyle 
  • Insertion:
    • Achilles tendon connecting to posterior calcaneus
  • Action:
    • Plantarflexion
    • Knee flexion

Soleus

  • Origin:
    • Head of fibula
    • Medial border of tibia
  • Insertion:
    • Achilles tendon connecting to calcaneus
  • Action:
    • Plantarflexion

Tibialis anterior

  • Origin:
    • Proximal lateral tibia
  • Insertion
    • Medial cuneiform
    • Base of 1st metatarsal
  • Action:
    • Dorsiflexion
    • Inversion

Gluteus Maximus (Gluteus)

  • Origin:
    • Posterior medial area of ilium
    • Posterior area of sacrum/coccyx
  • Insertion
    • Gluteal tuberosity of femur
    • Iliotibial tract
  • Action:
    • Hip extension
    • Lateral rotation of femur

Gluteus medius (gluteus)

  • Origin:
    • Superior posterior lip of Ilium
  • Insertion:
    • Greater trochanter
  • Action:
    • Hip abduction
    • Medial rotation of femur

Gluteus minimus (gluteus)

  • Origin:
    • Superior posterior area of Ilium
  • Insertion:
    • Greater trochanter
  • Action:
    • Hip abduction
    • Medial rotation of femur

Biceps femoris (hamstrings)

  • Origin:
    • Long head – ischial tuberosity
    • Short head – posterior femur
  • Insertion:
    • Head of fibula
  • Action:
    • Knee flexion
    • Hip extension
    • Lateral rotation of knee

Semimembranosus (Hamstrings)

  • Origin:
    • Ischial tuberosity
  • Insertion:
    • Medial condyle of tibia
  • Action: 
    • Hip extension
    • Knee flexion
    • Medial rotation of knee

Semitendinosus (Hamstrings)

  • Origin:
    • Ischial tuberosity
  • Insertion:
    • Superior medial part of tibia
  • Action:
    • Medial knee rotation
    • Knee flexion
    • Hip extension

Obturator externus (Adductors)

  • Origin:
    • Obturator foramen
  • Insertion:
    • Medial surface of greater trochanter
  • Action:
    • External hip rotation
    • Hip adduction

Adductor Brevis (adductors)

  • Origin:
    • Body of pubic
  • Insertion:
    • Posterior proximal part of femur
  • Action
    • Hip adduction
    • Hip flexion

Adductor longus (adductors)

  • Origin:
    • Body of pubic
  • Insertion:
    • Medial posterior part of femur
  • Action:
    • Hip adduction
    • Hip flexion

Adductor magnus (Adductors)

  • Origin:
    • Inferior ramus of body of pubic
    • Ischial tuberosity
  • Insertion:
    • Gluteal tuberosity of femur
    • Adductor tuberosity of femur
  • Action:
    • Hip adduction
    • Hip flexion (adductor portion)
    • Hip extension (hamstring portion)

Biggest of adductors 

  • Most posterior has an adductor section and hamstring section
  • 2 heads in which femoral artery passes through

Gracilis (Adductors)

  • Origin:
    • Body of pubic
  • Insertion:
    • Superior medial surface of tibia
  • Action:
    • Hip adduction
    • Knee flexion
    • Medial rotation of femur

 

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